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Verse 28:1

طٰسٓمٓ‏

T.S.M. Ta-Seen-Meem (Toor-e-Sina, Musa. commandments were given to Moses at Mount Sinai.)

Verse 28:2

تِلۡكَ اٰيٰتُ الۡـكِتٰبِ الۡمُبِيۡنِ‏

These are verses of the Book clear in itself, and it makes things clear.

Verse 28:3

نَـتۡلُوۡا عَلَيۡكَ مِنۡ نَّبَاِ مُوۡسٰى وَفِرۡعَوۡنَ بِالۡحَـقِّ لِقَوۡمٍ يُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ‏

We narrate to you some history of Moses and Pharaoh, setting forth the truth for the benefit of those who will believe.

Verse 28:4

اِنَّ فِرۡعَوۡنَ عَلَا فِى الۡاَرۡضِ وَجَعَلَ اَهۡلَهَا شِيَـعًا يَّسۡتَضۡعِفُ طَآٮِٕفَةً مِّنۡهُمۡ يُذَبِّحُ اَبۡنَآءَهُمۡ وَيَسۡتَحۡىٖ نِسَآءَهُمۡ​ ؕ اِنَّهٗ كَانَ مِنَ الۡمُفۡسِدِيۡنَ‏

Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and divided people into castes. A tribe among them (the Israelites) he oppressed, killing their sons and sparing their women. Surely, he was of the corrupters. [2:49, 7:141, 40:25] [Prophet Joseph son of Prophet Israel Jacob had died around 1600 BC. His successors gradually lost control of the government and the native Egyptians started up a slow but steady rebellion against the Israelites. About a century later around 1500 BC, the Egyptians wrested control of the government and established a kingdom. The Egyptian kings from then on assumed the title of ""Pharaoh"". They began persecuting the Israelites about 1400 BC and this persecution reached its zenith in the times of Prophet Moses, under the rule of Pharaoh Ramses II, 1290 to 1224 BC]

Verse 28:5

وَنُرِيۡدُ اَنۡ نَّمُنَّ عَلَى الَّذِيۡنَ اسۡتُضۡعِفُوۡا فِى الۡاَرۡضِ وَنَجۡعَلَهُمۡ اَٮِٕمَّةً وَّنَجۡعَلَهُمُ الۡوٰرِثِيۡنَۙ‏

But it was Our will to bestow favor to those who were oppressed in the land, and to make them leaders, and to make them inheritors.

Verse 28:6

وَنُمَكِّنَ لَهُمۡ فِى الۡاَرۡضِ وَنُرِىَ فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَهَامٰنَ وَجُنُوۡدَهُمَا مِنۡهُمۡ مَّا كَانُوۡا يَحۡذَرُوۡنَ‏

And to establish them on earth, and to show Pharaoh (the King) and Haman (the Chief Adviser and High Priest) and their troops what they feared from the Israelites. [""Feared from the Israelites"": The Israelites in Egypt had allied with the invading Hyksos dynasty 1700-1580 BC. See 12:44. Haaman: This Haman is quite different from the Persian Haman of the Old Testament who was an adviser to the Persian King Xerxes, who ruled eight hundred years later, from 486 To 465 BC. ""Haman"" of Pharaoh derives his name from the title borne by every successive High Priest of the Egyptian Kingdom. ""Ha- Amen"" = High Priest of the Egyptian god Amon. So the Haman mentioned in the Qur""an refers to the High Priest during the reign of Ramses II. The ability to translate the hieroglyphic language system of the Egyptians had been utterly lost for centuries at the time of the revelation of the Qur""an, and would remain lost until the year 1799. After the discovery in that year of the Rosetta Stone, scholars were able to unlock the mystery of the hieroglyphs and, eventually, to confirm that there was really a Haman, unmentioned in the Hebrew scriptures, who was close to this Pharaoh in this period, and who was involved in construction of towers and of temples just as the Qur""an says. This information is important to bear in mind in order to avoid confusion. Some historical records propose that the Pyramids of Egypt began to be built under the royal decree of one of the Pharaohs. The Qur""an alludes to that possibility in 38:12]

Verse 28:7

وَاَوۡحَيۡنَاۤ اِلٰٓى اُمِّ مُوۡسٰٓى اَنۡ اَرۡضِعِيۡهِ​ۚ فَاِذَا خِفۡتِ عَلَيۡهِ فَاَ لۡقِيۡهِ فِى الۡيَمِّ وَلَا تَخَافِىۡ وَلَا تَحۡزَنِىۡۚ اِنَّا رَآدُّوۡهُ اِلَيۡكِ وَجٰعِلُوۡهُ مِنَ الۡمُرۡسَلِيۡنَ‏

We inspired the mother of Moses, ""Nourish him and when you worry for his life, (place him in a box and) cast him into the river, and have no fear nor grieve. We shall bring him back to you and make him one of Our Messengers."" [The mother of Moses was the wife of Amram (Imran). They had three children: Miriam, Aaron and Moses in that order. Mary, mother of Jesus had descended from Amram through Aaron, and that is why the Qur""an refers to her as Maryam daughter of Imran. The Royal decree of Pharaoh applied to the new born boys when Aaron was already a few years old]

Verse 28:8

فَالۡتَقَطَهٗۤ اٰلُ فِرۡعَوۡنَ لِيَكُوۡنَ لَهُمۡ عَدُوًّا وَّحَزَنًا ​ ؕ اِنَّ فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَهَامٰنَ وَجُنُوۡدَهُمَا كَانُوۡا خٰطِـــِٕيۡنَ‏

And the family of Pharaoh picked him up, not knowing that he would become an enemy to them and a source of grief. That is because Pharaoh, Haman and their troops were a people bent on committing fault upon fault.

Verse 28:9

وَقَالَتِ امۡرَاَتُ فِرۡعَوۡنَ قُرَّتُ عَيۡنٍ لِّىۡ وَلَكَ​ ؕ لَا تَقۡتُلُوۡهُ ​ۖ  عَسٰٓى اَنۡ يَّـنۡفَعَنَاۤ اَوۡ نَـتَّخِذَهٗ وَلَدًا وَّهُمۡ لَا يَشۡعُرُوۡنَ‏ 

The wife of Pharaoh said, ""A joy to the eye for me and you! Do not slay him. He may well be of use to us, or we may adopt him as a son."" And they did not perceive (the future).

Verse 28:10

وَاَصۡبَحَ فُؤَادُ اُمِّ مُوۡسٰى فٰرِغًا​ ؕ اِنۡ كَادَتۡ لَـتُبۡدِىۡ بِهٖ لَوۡلَاۤ اَنۡ رَّبَطۡنَا عَلٰى قَلۡبِهَا لِتَكُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِيۡنَ‏

And the heart of the mother of Moses became void. She almost gave away his identity had We not strengthened her heart, so that she might remain a firm believer.

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