Verse 40:11

قَالُوۡا رَبَّنَاۤ اَمَتَّنَا اثۡنَتَيۡنِ وَاَحۡيَيۡتَنَا اثۡنَتَيۡنِ فَاعۡتَرَفۡنَا بِذُنُوۡبِنَا فَهَلۡ اِلٰى خُرُوۡجٍ مِّنۡ سَبِيۡلٍ‏

They will say, 'Our Lord, twice You have made us die, just as twice You have made us live. But now we confess that we did trail behind in making progress. Is there any way out of this (second death)?' [Two lives and deaths, see 2:28]

Verse 40:12

ذٰ لِكُمۡ بِاَنَّهٗۤ اِذَا دُعِىَ اللّٰهُ وَحۡدَهٗ كَفَرۡتُمۡ ۚ وَاِنۡ يُّشۡرَكۡ بِهٖ تُؤۡمِنُوۡا ؕ فَالۡحُكۡمُ لِلّٰهِ الۡعَلِىِّ الۡكَبِيۡرِ‏

It will be said to them, 'This is your plight because when God alone was invoked you denied the message, but when others (such as your 'holy' men) were included besides Him, you believed. But the command belongs only to God, the Sublime, the Majestic.' [39:45]

Verse 40:13

هُوَ الَّذِىۡ يُرِيۡكُمۡ اٰيٰتِهٖ وَيُنَزِّلُ لَـكُمۡ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ رِزۡقًا ؕ وَمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ اِلَّا مَنۡ يُّنِيۡبُ‏

He is the One Who shows you His signs in the Universe and sends down sustenance for you from the sky. Yet none learns a lesson except those who turn to seek the truth.

Verse 40:14

فَادۡعُوا اللّٰهَ مُخۡلِصِيۡنَ لَهُ الدِّيۡنَ وَلَوۡ كَرِهَ الۡـكٰفِرُوۡنَ‏ 

Call, then, upon God, sincere in your faith in Him alone, however hateful this may be to those who deny the truth.

Verse 40:15

رَفِيۡعُ الدَّرَجٰتِ ذُو الۡعَرۡشِ​ ۚ يُلۡقِى الرُّوۡحَ مِنۡ اَمۡرِهٖ عَلٰى مَنۡ يَّشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِهٖ لِيُنۡذِرَ يَوۡمَ التَّلَاقِ ۙ‏

Exalted He is in His Attributes, and Exalter of ranks He is, the Lord of the Throne of His Almightiness, Master of Supreme Control. By His command He has sent the revelation to whomever He chose from among His servants, in order that He may warn mankind of the Day of Mutual Meeting. [The Day when all of them meet together and meet their Lord. Rafiuddarajat and Zul'arsh carry double connotation in my opinion as rendered]

Verse 40:16

يَوۡمَ هُمۡ بَارِزُوۡنَ ۚ لَا يَخۡفٰى عَلَى اللّٰهِ مِنۡهُمۡ شَىۡءٌ ؕ لِمَنِ الۡمُلۡكُ الۡيَوۡمَ ؕ لِلّٰهِ الۡوَاحِدِ الۡقَهَّارِ‏

On that Day when they come forth, not a thing of them will be hidden from God. Whose will be the Kingdom that Day? God's, the One, the Dominating.

Verse 40:17

اَ لۡيَوۡمَ تُجۡزٰى كُلُّ نَـفۡسٍۢ بِمَا كَسَبَتۡ ؕ لَا ظُلۡمَ الۡيَوۡمَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ سَرِيۡعُ الۡحِسَابِ‏

That Day every 'self' will be rewarded for whatever it has earned. No injustice will be done on that Day. Surely, God is Swift in taking account.

Verse 40:18

وَاَنۡذِرۡهُمۡ يَوۡمَ الۡاٰزِفَةِ اِذِ الۡقُلُوۡبُ لَدَى الۡحَـنَاجِرِ كٰظِمِيۡنَ ؕ مَا لِلظّٰلِمِيۡنَ مِنۡ حَمِيۡمٍ وَّلَا شَفِيۡعٍ يُّطَاعُ ؕ‏

So, warn them of the Day which draws near, when the hearts will come right up the throats, choking them. No bosom friend will be there for the violators of human rights, nor will any mediator be granted audience

Verse 40:19

يَعۡلَمُ خَآٮِٕنَةَ الۡاَعۡيُنِ وَمَا تُخۡفِى الصُّدُوۡرُ‏

He knows the treachery of the eyes, and all that the hearts would conceal. [Treachery of the eyes = To look at others with temptation. See but not observe. To convey hearsay as if one has seen. Not lowering the gaze. Not using senses to full potential. Not learning from daily observation. Not using sight to develop the vision]

Verse 40:20

وَاللّٰهُ يَقۡضِىۡ بِالۡحَقِّؕ وَالَّذِيۡنَ يَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِهٖ لَا يَقۡضُوۡنَ بِشَىۡءٍؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ هُوَ السَّمِيۡعُ الۡبَصِيۡرُ‏

God alone judges with truth, but those whom they call instead of Him, cannot judge at all. God is Hearer, Seer. [God's omniscience described in the end explains why only He can be the Infallible Judge]

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